Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years.
People who are tense and under stress are prone to memory lapses T Translate the information or ideas into your own words S Rushing or being impulsive reduces attention to the information or task R Rehearse the information immediately and relate the new to the old ideas O Organize the information or organize locations; keep important items in a designated place A A picture is worth words; visualize the information W A small notebook, calendar, tape recorder or PDA can be very useful P The more information is practiced, the better will be the recall V Visualize Associate an image with the information to recall Select the strategy you feel is appropriate for your students.
Teach each step, one at a time. Be sure they understand each step and its meaning before moving on to the next. Then show the steps in sequence and explain how to use the mnemonic or keyword to help recall the steps.
An important criterion to keep in mind is, "don't pack and stack. Provide each student with time to process and consolidate one thing before moving on. Several years ago, a FarSide cartoon was published showing a classroom situation. The student raised his hand and asked to be excused because his "brain was full.
Too many strategies at once may confuse the student rather than help. He is also tossing the ball with each item. Repetition and rehearsal of information enhance a process called consolidation, the process by which memories are moved from temporary storage in the hippocampus a small structure within the brain to more permanent storage in the cortex the outer layer of the brain Richards,p.
Multiple repetitions of the information provides rehearsal, but doing so may bore students. When bored, the brain can go into a pattern similar to the "screen saver" mode on your computer monitor. The student may not pay attention to what he is repeating. Therefore, using strategies with humor, movement, songs, and other forms of novelty are critical in enhancing the value of the repetition.
As an example, consider the task of learning five state capitals. Following are several different activities to use in memorizing the associations. Practice saying the capital and the state together, as in "Sacramento, California; Columbus, Ohio" etc.
This helps create the association between the two words. Develop silly mnemonics to help remember which capital goes with the state. For Ohio, sketch a picture of a person saying, "oh, hi, oh Columbus. Perform a motor activity such as jumping on a small trampoline or playing catch while saying the city in response to hearing the state, or vice versa see figure 2.
Create a rap or jingle that repeats each state and its capital. Back to top Imagery: When thinking about imagery, most people think of the visual image. However, images can also be a motor image, sometimes called "muscle memory," or an auditory image.
Visual images A visual picture can cue a strategy or represent a concept. For example, suppose your student needs to remember that our First Amendment rights are free speech, religion, the press, and the right of assembly. Since it is the First Amendment and one rhymes with sun, use a sun as a visual cue.
Draw a happy sun with legs and arms, singing. Place the word RAPS in a talk bubble, as shown in figure 3. There are many different types of visual organizers.
Lines extend, with each representing a major concept.
The representations may use pictures, icons, or keywords. The example organizer below was developed in preplanning a paragraph on dogs Richards,p.
They can emphasize cause-and-effect, the sequence of an event or episode, or create a summary of what was read. Visual organizers are also useful in planning for a paragraph or report and in studying for a test.
Categorization is a critical skill for students because it forms the basis for critical thinking and inferential comprehension when reading. A Venn diagram is a valuable organizer that visually emphasizes comparisons and contrasts.
A Venn diagram comparing characteristics of mammals and reptiles was presented in the article The Writing Road. Other uses for Venn diagrams include comparing two characters in a story or two different events in history.
Two overlapping circles are drawn and characteristics of one item or event are listed in the left side of the circle if they differ from the other item. The characteristics of the second item are listed in the right side of the circle if they differ from the first item.A Spiritual Perspective.
By Wade Frazier. Revised February How I Developed my Spiritual Perspective. My Early Paranormal Experiences. Research and Activities – Notes from My Journey. In my life, though I have a lot of experience, I may choose those things that I may treasure for the rest of my life.
When my baby came into my life, when I got married and competing in a competition are the most memorable experience in my life that I may treasure. Having a baby makes me inspire every day. Aug 20, · This present article is more about a spectator’s experience of Federer, and its context. The specific thesis here is that if you’ve never seen the young man play live, and then do, in person.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Mar 03, · Note: Amy Krouse Rosenthal died on March 13, , 10 days after this essay was published.
You can read her obituary here. In June, , her husband published this response. I . Your information architecture is as smooth, clear, and inviting as a lake. Your design rocks.
Your code works. But what keeps readers coming back is compelling writing that’s continually fresh and new. Updating daily content can challenge the most dedicated scribe or site owner.
Mark Bernstein’s ten tips will help you keep the good words (and readers) coming.